Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all India examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of the candidate in various undergraduate subjects in Engineering/Technology/Architecture and post-graduate level subjects in Science. The GATE score of a candidate reflects a relative performance level in a particular subject in the exam across several years. The score is used for admissions to post-graduate programs (e.g., M.E., M.Tech, direct Ph.D.) in Indian institutes of higher education with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other Government agencies. The score may also be used by Public and Private Sector Undertakings for employment screening purposes.

The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) jointly administer the conduct of GATE. The operations related to GATE in each of the 8 zones are managed by a zonal GATE Office at the IITs or IISc. The Organizing Institute (OI) is responsible for the end-to-end process and coordination amongst the administering Institutes.

**Discrete Mathematics:** Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics: counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, LU decomposition.

**Calculus:** Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value theorem. Integration.

**Probability:** Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem.

**Digital Logic:** Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

**Computer Organization and Architecture:** Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, data‐path and control unit. Instruction pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

**Programming and Data Structures:** Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search trees, binary heaps, graphs.

**Algorithms:** Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity. Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divide‐and‐conquer. Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

**Theory of Computation:** Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and undecidability.

**Compiler Design:** Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate code generation.

**Operating System:** Processes, threads, inter‐process communication, concurrency and synchronization. Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

**Databases:** ER‐model. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints, normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and concurrency control.

**Computer Networks:** Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques, switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP). Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.

Answer: Option [B]

Answer: Option [A]

Answer: Option [C]

Answer: Option [D]

Answer: Option [D]

Answer: Option [A]