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Streams of Migration

Internal migration (within the country)

Internal migration may be a long-term trend, but it is difficult to measure. There has been an increase in internal migration due to the decentralization of economic activities, which has provided employment opportunities in the secondary and tertiary sectors of many developing countries, including rural areas. As rural populations grow by dint of natural increase, there is also growth through migration.

  • rural to rural (R-R);
  • rural to urban (R-U);
  • Urban to urban (U-U); and
  • urban to rural (U- R).

International migration (out of the country and into the country from other countries)

International migration (out of the country and into the country from other countries) occurs when people cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time.

Migration occurs for many reasons. Many people leave their home countries in order to look for economic opportunities in another country.

While there are several different potential systems for categorizing international migrants, one system organizes them into nine groups: temporary labor migrants; irregular, illegal, or undocumented migrants; highly skilled and business migrants; refugees; asylum seekers; forced migration; family members; return migrants; and long-term, low-skilled migrants.

These migrants can also be divided into two large groups, permanent and temporary. Permanent migrants intend to establish their permanent residence in a new country and possibly obtain that country’s citizenship.

Temporary migrants intend only to stay for a limited periods of time; perhaps until the end of a particular program of study or for the duration of a their work contract or a certain work season.

Both types of migrants have a significant effect on the economies and societies of the chosen destination country and the country of origin.

Than 5 million person have migrated to India from other countries. Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million).

20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries. Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in-migrants (interstate), followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana.

On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants from the state.

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