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What is Migration? Types, Causes And Consequences

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another. Migration can be within a country or between countries. Movements of people are sometimes required due to some reason. There are many reasons for migrations.

Migration can be the means of escaping violence or persecution, seeking better economic opportunities, or bettering one’s living conditions, or forced resettlement may also be reasons for migration.

Migration can be permanent, temporary or seasonal. Migration happens for a range of reasons. These can be economic, social, political or environmental. Push and pull factors drive migration.

Migration impacts both the place left behind and on the place where migrants settle. These impacts can be both positive and negative.

Some people decide to migrate, e.g. someone who moves to another country to improve their career opportunities. Some people are forced to migrate, e.g. someone who moves due to famine or war.

A refugee is someone who has left their home and does not have a new one. Often refugees do not carry have possessions with them and do not know where they will finally settle.

The first wave of migrants

During colonial period (British period) millions of the indentured labourers were sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands (Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana), Fiji and South Africa by British from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; to Reunion Island, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Surinam by French and DutchWhat iWhat is Migrations Migration and by Portuguese from Goa, Daman and Diu to Angola, Mozambique to work as plantation workers.

The second wave of migrants

professionals, artisans, traders and factory workers, in search of economic opportunities to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and African countries, etc. and the trend still continues.

There was a steady out flow of India’s semi-skilled and skilled labour in the wake of the oil boom in West Asia in the 1970s.

Third wave, of migrant

Professionals like doctors, engineers (1960s onwards), software engineers, management consultants, financial experts, media persons (1980s onwards), and others migrated to countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany, etc.

These professional enjoy the distinction of being one of highly educated, the highest earning and prospering groups.

After liberalization, in the 90s education and knowledge—based Indian emigration has made Indian Diaspora one of the most powerful diaspora as in the world.

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